Africa: reports and publications

These reports and publications are related to energy modeling for policy support (EMoPS). This page currently includes the Middle East region too.


Blimpo, Moussa P, Prudence Dato, Brian Mukhaya, and Lily Odarno (May 2023). Climate change and economic development in Africa: a systematic review of energy transition research — CATF Working Paper — May 2023. Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Clean Air Task Force.

Planning and strategy

International Energy Agency (8 November 2019). Africa energy outlook. Paris, France: IEA Publications. No cost but registration required.

IRENA (April 2021). Planning and prospects for renewable power: Eastern and Southern Africa. Abu Dhabi: International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). ISBN 978‑92‑9260‑331‑1. Open access. :open_access:

Levin, Todd and Valerie M Thomas (1 February 2012). “Least-cost network evaluation of centralized and decentralized contributions to global electrification”. Energy Policy. 41: 286–302. ISSN 0301-4215. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2011.10.048. :closed_access:

Levin, Todd and Valerie M Thomas (1 May 2014). “Utility-maximizing financial contracts for distributed rural electrification”. Energy. 69: 613–621. ISSN 0360-5442. doi:10.1016/ :closed_access:

Levin, Todd and Valerie M Thomas (1 April 2016). “Can developing countries leapfrog the centralized electrification paradigm?”. Energy for Sustainable Development. 31: 97–107. ISSN 0973-0826. doi:10.1016/j.esd.2015.12.005. :closed_access:

Mutiso, Rose, Ken Caldeira, Murefu Barasa, Moussa Blimpo, Lauren Culver, Habiba Ahut Daggash, Michael Dioha, Zeke Hausfather, June Lukuyu, Joel Nana, Joan Nkiriki, Lily Odarno, and Katie Auth (October 2022). Who decides Africa’s net zero pathways? Five ways to fix how we model African energy transitions and why it matters for climate and development. Net Zero Equity Working Group.

Pappis, Ioannis, Mark Howells, Vignesh Sridharan, Will Usher, Abhishek Shivakumar, Gardumi Francesco, and Eunice Ramos (2019). Energy projections for African countries. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. ISBN 978-92-76-12391-0. doi:10.2760/678700. CC‑BY‑4.0 license. Download PDF from DOI site. :open_access:


Chen, Yuang, Beste Basciftci, and Valerie M Thomas (August 2022). Multi-stage stochastic electrification planning under demand uncertainty. doi:10.1109/PowerAfrica53997.2022.9905247. 2022 IEEE PES/IAS PowerAfrica conference. 5 pages. :closed_access:

Dioha, MO (December 2017). “Energy system models for sub-Saharan African countries: a systematic review”. Journal of Sustainable Energy. 8 (4): 159–168. ISSN 2067-5534.

Falchetta, Giacomo, David EHJ Gernaat, Julian Hunt, and Sebastian Sterl (10 September 2019). “Hydropower dependency and climate change in sub-Saharan Africa: a nexus framework and evidence-based review”. Journal of Cleaner Production. 231: 1399–1417. ISSN 0959-6526. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.05.263. :closed_access:

Falchetta, Giacomo, Nicolò Stevanato, Magda Moner-Girona, Davide Mazzoni, Emanuela Colombo, and Manfred Hafner (July 2021). “The M-LED platform: advancing electricity demand assessment for communities living in energy poverty”. Environmental Research Letters. 16 (7): 074038. ISSN 1748-9326. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ac0cab. CC‑BY‑4.0 license. :open_access:

Kirli, Desen, Johannes Hampp, Koen van Greevenboek, Rebecca Grant, Matin Mahmood, Maximilian Parzen, and Aristides Kiprakis (20 October 2021). “PyPSA meets Africa: developing an open source electricity network model of the African continent”. arXiv:2110.10628 [cs, eess]. Version 1. :open_access:

Levin, Todd and Valerie M Thomas (1 March 2013). “A mixed-integer optimization model for electricity infrastructure development”. Energy Systems. 4 (1): 79–98. ISSN 1868-3975. doi:10.1007/s12667-012-0067-8. :closed_access:

Levin, Todd and Valerie M Thomas (1 September 2014). “Modeling the impact of stochastic outages for electricity infrastructure development”. Energy Systems. 5 (3): 519–550. ISSN 1868-3975. doi:10.1007/s12667-013-0102-4. :closed_access:

Mukhtar, Mustapha, Humphrey Adun, Dongsheng Cai, Sandra Obiora, Michael Taiwo, Ting Ni, Dilber Uzun Ozsahin, and Olusola Bamisile (19 July 2023). “Juxtaposing sub-Sahara Africa’s energy poverty and renewable energy potential”. Scientific Reports. 13 (1): 11643. ISSN 2045-2322. doi:10.1038/s41598-023-38642-4.

Musonye, Xavier S, Brynhildur Davíðsdóttir, Ragnar Kristjánsson, Eyjólfur I Ásgeirsson, and Hlynur Stefánsson (August 2020). “Integrated energy systems modeling studies for sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 128: 109915. ISSN 1364-0321. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2020.109915. :closed_access:

Musselman, Amelia, Valerie M Thomas, Dima Nazzal, Dimitri J Papageorgiou, Aranya Venkatesh, and Dharik S Mallapragada (1 May 2022). “The impact of development priorities on power system expansion planning in sub-Saharan Africa”. Energy Systems. 13 (2): 461–492. ISSN 1868-3975. doi:10.1007/s12667-021-00433-z. :closed_access:

Pavičević, Matija, Matteo De Felice, Sebastian Busch, Ignacio Hidalgo González, and Sylvain Quoilin (1 August 2021). “Water-energy nexus in African power pools – the Dispa-SET Africa model”. Energy. 228: 120623. ISSN 0360-5442. :closed_access: doi:10.1016/

Pappis, Ioannis (19 January 2022). Strategic low-cost energy investment opportunities and challenges towards achieving universal access (SDG7) in each African nation — Preprint. doi:10.21203/ Available at Research Square. CC‑BY‑4.0 license. :open_access:

Pappis, Ioannis, Vignesh Sridharan, Mark Howells, Hrvoje Medarac, Ioannis Kougias, Rocío González Sánchez, Abhishek Shivakumar, and Will Usher (March 2022). “The effects of climate change mitigation strategies on the energy system of Africa and its associated water footprint”. Environmental Research Letters. 17 (4): 044048. ISSN 1748-9326. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ac5ede. :open_access:

Stevanato, Nicolò, Matteo V Rocco, Matteo Giuliani, Andrea Castelletti, and Emanuela Colombo (2 December 2021). “Advancing the representation of reservoir hydropower in energy systems modelling: the case of Zambesi river basin”. PLOS ONE. 16 (12): –0259876. ISSN 1932-6203. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0259876. CC‑BY‑4.0 license. :open_access:

Taliotis, Constantinos, Abhishek Shivakumar, Eunice Ramos, Mark Howells, Dimitris Mentis, Vignesh Sridharan, Oliver Broad, and Linus Mofor (1 April 2016). “An indicative analysis of investment opportunities in the African electricity supply sector: using TEMBA (The Electricity Model Base for Africa)”. Energy for Sustainable Development. 31: 50–66. ISSN 0973-0826. doi:10.1016/j.esd.2015.12.001. :closed_access:

Trace, Simon (11 May 2020). Strategic energy planning in SSA is essential but is often constrained. SSA is sub‑Saharan Africa. News site.


Allington, Lucy, Carla Cannone, Ioannis Pappis, Karla Cervantes Barron, Will Usher, Steve Pye, Edward Brown, Mark Howells, Miriam Zachau Walker, Aniq Ahsan, Flora Charbonnier, Claire Halloran, Stephanie Hirmer, Jennifer Cronin, Constantinos Taliotis, Caroline Sundin, Vignesh Sridharan, Eunice Ramos, Maarten Brinkerink, Paul Deane, Andrii Gritsevskyi, Gustavo Moura, Arnaud Rouget, David Wogan, Edito Barcelona, Taco Niet, Holger Rogner, Franziska Bock, Jairo Quirós-Tortós, Jam Angulo-Paniagua, Satheesh Krishnamurthy, John Harrison, and Long Seng To (1 June 2022). “Selected ‘starter kit’ energy system modelling data for selected countries in Africa, East Asia, and South America”. Data in Brief. 42: 108021. ISSN 2352‑3409. doi:10.1016/j.dib.2022.108021. :open_access:

Sterl, Sebastian, Bilal Hussain, Asami Miketa, Yunshu Li, Bruno Merven, Mohammed Bassam Ben Ticha, Mohamed A Eltahir Elabbas, Wim Thiery, and Daniel Russo (31 October 2022). “An all-Africa dataset of energy model “supply regions” for solar photovoltaic and wind power”. Scientific Data. 9 (1): 664. ISSN 2052‑4463. doi:10.1038/s41597-022-01786-5. :open_access: Dataset on zenodo.

Materials requirements

Cervantes Barron, Karla, Maaike E Hakker, and Jonathan M Cullen (1 November 2022). “Material requirements for future low-carbon electricity projections in Africa”. Energy Strategy Reviews. 44: 100890. ISSN 2211‑467X. doi:10.1016/j.esr.2022.100890. (Uses the Mat-dp model.) :open_access:

African continent

Arnold, Wyatt, Jazmin Z Salazar, Angelo Carlino, Matteo Giuliani, and Andrea Castelletti (April 2023). “Operations eclipse sequencing in multipurpose dam planning”. Earth’s Future. 11 (4): e2022EF003186. doi:10.1029/2022EF003186. :open_access:

Barnes, Trevor, Abhishek Shivakumar, Maarten Brinkerink, and Taco Niet (14 October 2022). “OSeMOSYS Global, an open-source, open data global electricity system model generator”. Scientific Data. 9 (623). ISSN 2052-4463. doi:10.1038/s41597-022-01737-0. :open_access:

Beaucamp, Leonie and Eugene Nforngwa (21 August 2023). Unlocking 100% renewable electricity in Africa and elsewhere. Bonn, Germany: Germanwatch.

Carlino, Angelo, Matthias Wildemeersch, Matteo Giuliani, and Andrea Castelletti (28 March 2022). Hydropower capacity expansion in the African continent under different socio-economic and climate policy scenarios — EGU22-12703. doi:10.5194/egusphere-egu22-12703. Abstract only (yet to be presented). Conference on 23–27 May 2022. :open_access:

Khavari, Babak, Camilo Ramirez, Marc Jeuland and Francesco Fuso Nerini (12 January 2023). “A geospatial approach to understanding clean cooking challenges in sub-Saharan Africa”. Nature Sustainability. 1–11. ISSN 2398-9629. doi:10.1038/s41893-022-01039-8. :open_access: Describes the use of the open‑source OnStove model.

Oyewo, Ayobami S, Dmitrii Bogdanov, Arman Aghahosseini, Theophilus NO Mensah, and Christian Breyer (6 September 2022). “Contextualizing the scope, scale, and speed of energy pathways toward sustainable development in Africa”. iScience. 0 (0): 0. ISSN 2589‑0042. doi:10.1016/j.isci.2022.104965. Publication details to be advised. :open_access:

Pappis, Ioannis (2022). Trade-offs and conflicting objectives of decision making investments in low-carbon technology portfolios for sustainable development: national and continental insights offered by applying energy system models — PhD thesis. Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Royal Institute of Technology. Doctoral Thesis in Energy and Environmental Systems. :open_access:

Parzen, Maximilian, Hazem Abdel-Khalek, Ekaterina Fedotova, Matin Mahmood, Martha Maria Frysztacki, Johannes Hampp, Lukas Franken, Leon Schumm, Fabian Neumann, Davide Poli, Aristides Kiprakis, and Davide Fioriti (1 July 2023). “PyPSA-Earth. A new global open energy system optimization model demonstrated in Africa”. Applied Energy. 341: 121096. ISSN 0306-2619. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2023.121096. :open_access:


Ouedraogo, Nadia S (1 January 2023). “A GIS approach to electrification planning in Cameroon”. Energy Strategy Reviews. 45: 101020. ISSN 2211‑467X. doi:10.1016/j.esr.2022.101020. :open_access:

Democratic Republic of Congo

Dalder, Jacob, Gbemi Oluleye, Rudolf Yeganyan, Naomi Tan, Carla Cannone, and Mark Howells (May 2023). “Modeling policy pathways to maximize renewable energy growth and investment in Democratic Republic of the Congo using OSeMOSYS”. doi:10.21203/ Preprint. :open_access:

Imasiku, Katundu and Valerie M Thomas (January 2020). [“The mining and technology industries as catalysts for sustainable energy development”](Sustainability | Free Full-Text | The Mining and Technology Industries as Catalysts for Sustainable Energy Development Sustainability. 12 (24): 10410. ISSN 2071-1050. doi:10.3390/su122410410. :open_access:


Dallmann, Christoph, Matthew Schmidt, and Dominik Möst (1 May 2022). “Between path dependencies and renewable energy potentials: a case study of the Egyptian power system”. Energy Strategy Reviews. 41: 100848. ISSN 2211‑467X. doi:10.1016/j.esr.2022.100848. :open_access:

Gibson, Anna, Zen Makuch, Rudolf Yeganyan, Naomi Tan, Carla Cannone, and Mark Howells (April 2023). “Long-term energy system modelling for a clean energy transition in Egypt’s energy sector”. doi:10.21203/ Preprint. :open_access:

Rady, Yassin Yehia, Matteo V Rocco, MA Serag-Eldin, and Emanuela Colombo (15 December 2018). “Modelling for power generation sector in developing countries: case of Egypt”. Energy. 165: 198–209. ISSN 0360-5442. doi:10.1016/


Boke, Megersa Tesfaye, Semu Ayalew Moges, and Zeleke Agide Dejen (14 January 2022). “Optimizing renewable-based energy supply options for power generation in Ethiopia”. PLOS ONE. 17 (1): 0262595. ISSN 1932-6203. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0262595. CC‑BY‑4.0 license. :open_access:

Mekonnen, Tewodros Walle, Solomon Tesfamariam Teferi, Fitsum Salehu Kebede, and Gabrial Anandarajah (January 2022). “Assessment of impacts of climate change on hydropower-dominated power system — the case of Ethiopia”. Applied Sciences. 12 (4): 1954. ISSN 2076-3417. doi:10.3390/app12041954. CC‑BY‑4.0 license. :open_access:

Yalew, Amsalu Woldie (18 February 2022). “The Ethiopian energy sector and its implications for the SDGs and modeling”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Transition. 2: 100018. ISSN 2667-095X. doi:10.1016/j.rset.2022.100018. CC‑BY‑4.0 license. :open_access:


Awopone, Albert K, Ahmed F Zobaa, and Walter Banuenumah (2017). “Assessment of optimal pathways for power generation system in Ghana”. Cogent Engineering. 4 (1): 1314065. doi:10.1080/23311916.2017.1314065. CC‑BY‑4.0 license. :open_access:


Akute, Michelle and Carla Cannone (9 December 2022). Effects of switching from biomass stoves to electric stoves and subsequent reduction in resultant emissions in the Kenyan energy sector — Preprint. ResearchSquare. doi:10.21203/ :open_access:

Golinucci, Nicolò, Nicolò Stevanato, Federica Inzoli, Mohammad Amin Tahavori, Negar Namazifard, Lamya Adil Sulliman Hussain, Benedetta Camilli, Matteo Vincenzo Rocco, and Emanuela Colombo. (11 November 2020). Comprehensive and integrated impact assessment framework for development policies evaluation: definition and application to Kenya — FEEM Report No 10‑2020. Milan, Italy: Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM). ISBN 978-889436944-1. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3733717. :open_access:

Moksnes, Nandi, Mark Howells, and William Usher (28 June 2022). “Increasing spatial and temporal resolution in energy system optimization model: the case of Kenya — Preprint”. doi:10.21203/ :open_access:

Moksnes, Nandi, Alexandros Korkovelos, Dimitrios Mentis, and Mark Howells (September 2017). “Electrification pathways for Kenya — linking spatial electrification analysis and medium to long term energy planning”. Environmental Research Letters. 12 (9): 095008. ISSN 1748-9326. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aa7e18. CC‑BY‑4.0 license. Note subsequent correction. :open_access:


Hassen, Bibi Nabilah, Dinesh Surroop, and Jean Philippe Praene (1 March 2023). “Phasing-out of coal from the energy system in Mauritius”. Energy Strategy Reviews. 46: 101068. ISSN 2211-467X. doi:10.1016/j.esr.2023.101068. :open_access:

Middle East

Taliotis, Constantinos, Marios Karmellos, Nestor Fylaktos, and Theodoros Zachariadis (22 September 2022). “Enhancing decarbonization of power generation through electricity trade in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East region — Preprint”. doi:10.2139/ssrn.4226822. Available at SSRN. Note currently truncated citation. :open_access:


Bahetta, Soufiyan and Rachid Hasnaoui (July 2021). “Analyses of optimum production scenarios for sustainable power production in Morocco”. Review of Economics and Finance. 19 (1): 184–195. Open access. HAL landing page. :open_access:

Bahetta, Soufiyan, Nabil Dahhou, and Rachid Hasnaoui (25 October 2021). “Comparative effectiveness of environmental regulation instruments: case of the Moroccan electricity mix”. AIMS Energy. 9 (5): 1097–1112. doi:10.3934/energy.2021050. CC‑BY‑4.0 license. :open_access:

Harland, Natasha, Malte Jansen, Rudolf Yeganyan, Naomi Tan, Carla Cannone, and Mark Howells (April 2023). “Morocco’s coal to clean journey: optimised pathways for decarbonisation and energy security”. Preprint. :open_access:


Dada, Joseph Olufemi and Albert Moser (August 2019). REPLAN: multi-region power system planning approach for Nigeria. Manhattan, New York, USA: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). doi:10.1109/PowerAfrica.2019.8928896. 2019 IEEE PES/IAS PowerAfrica conference proceedings. :closed_access:

Golobish, Sarah, Rudolf Yeganyan, Naomi Tan, Carla Cannone, and Mark Howells (April 2023). “The burden of the broken grid: modelling improved power-sector reliability to support low carbon development in Nigeria”. doi:10.21203/ :open_access:

Isihak, Salisu, Uduak Akpan, and Subhes Bhattacharyya (19 February 2022). “Evolution of GIS-based rural electrification planning models and an application of OnSSET in Nigeria — Official pre‑proof”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Transition. 100019. ISSN 2667-095X. doi:10.1016/j.rset.2022.100019. :open_access:

Isihak, Salisu R (1 January 2023). “Achieving universal electricity access in line with SDG7 using GIS-based model: an application of OnSSET for rural electrification planning in Nigeria”. Energy Strategy Reviews. 45: 101021. ISSN 2211‑467X. doi:10.1016/j.esr.2022.101021. :open_access:

Juanpera, M, P Blechinger, L Ferrer-Martí, MM Hoffmann, and R Pastor (1 November 2020). “Multicriteria-based methodology for the design of rural electrification systems: a case study in Nigeria”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 133: 110243. ISSN 1364‑0321. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2020.110243. Linked URL is a preprint.

Ogunlowo, Qazeem Opeyemi, Wook Ho Na, Anis Rabiu, Misbaudeen Aderemi Adesanya, Elizabeth Oluwakemi Augustus, and Hyun Woo Lee (27 September 2022). “Nigeria’s energy policy needs state-of-the-art modelling tools”. Nature. 609 (7929): 895–895. ISSN 0028‑0836. doi:10.1038/d41586-022-03010-1. :closed_access:

Reunion Island

Ayagapin, Leslie, Jean Philippe Praene, Doorgeshwaree Jaggeshar, and Dinesh Surroop (January 2021). “Prospective life cycle assessment: effect of electricity decarbonization in building sector”. Energies. 14 (11): 3184. ISSN 1996-1073. doi:10.3390/en14113184. CC‑BY‑4.0 license. :open_access:


Muza, Olivia and Valerie M Thomas (1 July 2022). “Cultural norms to support gender equity in energy development: grounding the productive use agenda in Rwanda”. Energy Research and Social Science. 89: 102543. ISSN 2214-6296. doi:10.1016/j.erss.2022.102543. :closed_access:

Sierra Leone

Gardumi, Francesco, Luca Petrarulo, S Sesay, D Caulker, Mark Howells, and Ioannis Pappis (1 October 2022). “Supporting a self-sustained energy planning ecosystem: lessons from Sierra Leone”. Energy for Sustainable Development. 70: 62–67. ISSN 0973-0826. doi:10.1016/j.esd.2022.07.006. :open_access:

Southern Africa

Chowdhury, AFM Kamal, Ranjit Deshmukh, Grace C Wu, Anagha Uppal, Ana Mileva, Tiana Curry, Les Armstrong, Stefano Galelli, and Kudakwashe Ndhlukula (17 August 2022). “Enabling a low-carbon electricity system for Southern Africa”. Joule. 6 (8): 1826–1844. ISSN 2542‑4785. doi:10.1016/j.joule.2022.06.030. :closed_access:

South Africa

Hörsch, Jonas and Joanne Calitz (30 October 2017). “PyPSA-ZA: Investment and operation co-optimization of integrating wind and solar in South Africa at high spatial and temporal detail — Preprint”.

Welsch, Manuel, Mark Howells, Morgan Bazilian, Joseph F DeCarolis, Sebastian Hermann, and Holger H Rogner (1 October 2012). “Modelling elements of smart grids — enhancing the OSeMOSYS (Open Source Energy Modelling System) code”. Energy. 46 (1): 337–350. ISSN 0360-5442. doi:10.1016/


Rocco, Matteo V, Elena Fumagalli, Chiara Vigone, Ambrogio Miserocchi, and Emanuela Colombo (1 March 2021). “Enhancing energy models with geo-spatial data for the analysis of future electrification pathways: the case of Tanzania”. Energy Strategy Reviews. 34: 100614. ISSN 2211-467X. doi:10.1016/j.esr.2020.100614. CC‑BY‑NC‑ND‑4.0 license. :open_access:

Rocco, Matteo V, Francesco Tonini, Elena M Fumagalli, and Emanuela Colombo (1 August 2020). “Electrification pathways for Tanzania: implications for the economy and the environment”. Journal of Cleaner Production. 263: 121278. ISSN 0959-6526. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.121278.


Tchandao, Esso-Wazam Honoré, Akim Adekunlé Salami, Koffi Mawugno Kodjo, Amy Nabiliou, and Seydou Ouedraogo (15 March 2023). “Modelling the optimal electricity mix for Togo by 2050 using OSeMOSYS”. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development. 12 (2): 430–439. ISSN 2252-4940. doi:10.14710/ijred.2023.50104. :open_access:


Dhakouani, Asma, Francesco Gardumi, Essia Znouda, Chiheb Bouden, and Mark Howells (15 December 2017). “Long-term optimisation model of the Tunisian power system”. Energy. 141: 550–562. ISSN 0360-5442. doi:10.1016/ :closed_access:

Dhakouani, Asma, Essia Znouda, and Chiheb Bouden (1 October 2019). “Impacts of energy efficiency policies on the integration of renewable energy”. Energy Policy. 133: 110922. ISSN 0301-4215. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2019.110922. :closed_access:

Dhakouani, Asma, Essia Znouda, and Chiheb Bouden (2020). Impacts of electricity subsidies policy on energy transition. In Qudrat-Ullah and Asif (editors). Dynamics of energy, environment and economy: a sustainability perspective. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. ISBN 978-3-030-43578-3. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-43578-3_4. :closed_access:

Gardumi, Francesco, Nesrine Mhiri, Mark Howells, Franziska Bock, Thameur Necibi, and Chiheb Bouden (1 November 2021). “A scenario analysis of potential long-term impacts of COVID-19 on the Tunisian electricity sector”. Energy Strategy Reviews. 38: 100759. ISSN 2211-467X. doi:10.1016/j.esr.2021.100759. CC‑BY‑4.0 license. :open_access:

Howells, Mark, Thameur Necibi, John Skip Laitner, Francesco Gardumi, and Franziska Bock (6 April 2021). Integrated input-output and systems analysis modelling: the case of Tunisia — part 2: a systems model with IO multipliers — Preprint. doi:10.21203/ CC‑BY‑4.0 license. :open_access:


Nyoni, Kumbuso Joshua (13 December 2022). The Zambian Energy Transition (ZET): a case study for OSeMOSYS and FlexTool — Preprint. ResearchSquare. doi:10.21203/ :open_access:

Tembo, Bernard (January 2018). Strategic investment decisions in Zambia’s mining sector under a constrained energy system. PhD thesis. London, United Kingdom: University College London (UCL). :open_access:


Howells, Mark, Brent Boehlert, and Pablo César Benitez (January 2021). “Potential climate change risks to meeting Zimbabwe’s NDC goals and how to become resilient”. Energies. 14 (18): 5827. ISSN 1996-1073. doi:10.3390/en14185827. CC‑BY‑4.0 license. :open_access:

Technology potentials and costs

Bofinger, Stefan, Britta Zimmermann, Ann-Katrin Gerlach, Tobias Bischof-Niemz, and Crescent Mushwana (3 March 2016). Wind and solar PV resource aggregation study for South Africa: public presentation of results — Revision 1 — Presentation. Pretoria, South Africa: Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). :open_access:

Knorr, Kaspar, Britta Zimmermann, Stefan Bofinger, Ann-Katrin Gerlach, Tobias Bischof-Niemz, and Crescent Mushwana (1 November 2016). Wind and solar PV resource aggregation study for South Africa — Final report — RFP no 542-23-02-2015. Bremerhaven, Germany: Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy Systems (IWES). :open_access:

Mentis, Dimitris, Shahid Hussain Siyal, Alexandros Korkovelos, and Mark Howells (1 September 2017). “Estimating the spatially explicit wind generated electricity cost in Africa: a GIS based analysis”. Energy Strategy Reviews. 17: 45–49. ISSN 2211-467X. doi:10.1016/j.esr.2017.07.002. :closed_access:

Climate impacts

Cervigni, Raffaello, Rikard Liden, James E Neumann, and Kenneth M Strzepek (editors) (1 September 2015). Enhancing the climate resilience of Africa’s infrastructure. Washington DC, USA: World Bank. ISBN 978‑1‑4648‑0466‑3.

Sridharan, Vignesh, Oliver Broad, Abhishek Shivakumar, Mark Howells, Brent Boehlert, David G Groves, H-Holger Rogner, Constantinos Taliotis, James E Neumann, Kenneth M Strzepek, Robert Lempert, Brian Joyce, Annette Huber-Lee, and Raffaello Cervigni (17 January 2019). “Resilience of the Eastern African electricity sector to climate driven changes in hydropower generation”. Nature Communications. 10 (1): 302. ISSN 2041-1723. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-08275-7. CC‑BY‑4.0 license. :open_access:

Machine-learning projections

Alova, Galina, Philipp A Trotter, and Alex Money (February 2021). “A machine-learning approach to predicting Africa’s electricity mix based on planned power plants and their chances of success”. Nature Energy. 6 (2): 158–166. ISSN 2058-7546. doi:10.1038/s41560-020-00755-9. :closed_access:

Vetter, David (11 January 2021). Africa could be locked into fossil fuel future, warns new report. Forbes. Covers Alova et al (2021) (cited above). :open_access:

Starter kits

Allington, Lucy, Carla Cannone, Ioannis Pappis, Karla Cervantes Barron, Will Usher, Steve Pye, Edward Brown, Mark Howells, Miriam Zachau Walker, Aniq Ahsan, Flora Charbonnier, Claire Halloran, Stephanie Hirmer, Jennifer Cronin, Constantinos Taliotis, Caroline Sundin, Vignesh Sridharan, Eunice Ramos, Maarten Brinkerink, Paul Deane, Andrii Gritsevskyi, Gustavo Moura, Arnaud Rouget, David Wogan, Edito Barcelona, Taco Niet, Holger Rogner, Franziska Bock, Jairo Quirós-Tortós, Jam Angulo-Paniagua, Satheesh Krishnamurthy, John Harrison, and Long Seng To (12 February 2022). Selected ‘starter kit’ energy system modelling data for selected countries in Africa, East Asia, and South America (#CCG, 2021). doi:10.21203/ :open_access:

Cannone, Carla, Lucy Allington, Karla Cervantes Barron, Flora Charbonnier, Miriam Zachau Walker, Claire Halloran, Rudolf Yeganyan, Naomi Tan, Jonathan M Cullen, John Harrison, Long Seng To, and Mark Howells (12 March 2023). “Designing a zero-order energy transition model: how to create a new Starter Data Kit”. MethodsX. 102120. ISSN 2215-0161. doi:10.1016/j.mex.2023.102120. Preproof. :open_access:

Cannone, Carla, Lucy Allington, Nicki de Wet, Abhishek Shivakumar, Philip Goynes, Cesar Valderrama, Vedran Kapor, Jarrad Wright, Rudolf Yeganyan, Naomi Tan, Long Seng To, John Harrison, and Mark Howells (12 February 2022). clicSAND for OSeMOSYS: a user-friendly interface using open-source optimisation software for energy system modelling analysis. doi:10.21203/ Pre‑print. :open_access:


Chigumadzi, Panashe (31 December 2021). “Can white South Africa live up to Ubuntu, the African philosophy Tutu globalised?”. The Guardian. London, United Kingdom. ISSN 0261-3077. :open_access:

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Sekanabo, Desire, Elias Nyandwi, Hakizimana Khan Jean de Dieu, and Valerie M Thomas (18 May 2022). “The statistical relationship between economic growth and total energy use: evidence from panel co-integration and Granger-causality investigation of SSA countries”. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy. 12 (3): 151–160. ISSN 2146-4553. doi:10.32479/ijeep.11472. :open_access:

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PyPSA meets Africa

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